AP Biology:  Diagram Lists

Below is a list of diagrams from the textbook that will help provide you with a greater understanding of the concepts in this unit.  The diagrams are available for you to print from the Campbell website. You may wish consider printing the unlabeled diagrams, and labeling the significant structures yourself as you read or as diagrams are discussed in class. As an AP student, you are expected to be an active participant, so bring all diagrams to class for every unit.

Cells & Transport
Mitosis and Diversity of Life:
Viruses, Prokaryotes, & Protists
Meiosis and Patterns of Inheritance

Diversity of Life: Fungi,
Bryophytes, Pteridophytes,
Gymnosperms, & Angiosperms

Photosynthesis Angiosperm Growth, Transport, 
Responses, Reproduction & Hormones
DNA & Protein Synthesis
Molecular Genetics
Reproduction & Development Invertebrates Histology & Endocrine
Digestion & Excretion Circulation & Respiration Immunty
Nervous Evolution


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Chapter 52:  An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere
52.8:  Predator-removal experiments
52.10:  Exploring Global Climate Patterns
52.16a:  Zonation in a lake
52.16b:  Zonation in the marine environment
52.17:  Seasonal turnover
52.19:  The distribution of major terrestrial biomes

Chapter 53:  Population Ecology
53.6:  Idealized survivorship curves
53.10:  Population growth predicted by the exponential model
53.12:  Population growth predicted by the logistic model
53.20:  Population cycles in the snowshoe hare and lynx
53.22:  Human population growth
53.25:  Age-structure pyramids

Chapter 54:  Community Ecology
54.2:  Resource partitioning in a group of lizards 
54.3:  Testing a competitive exclusion hypothesis in the field
54.4:  Character displacement:  circumstantial evidence for competition in nature
54.11:  Examples of terrestrial and marine food chains
54.12:  An antarctic marine food web 
54.27:  The hypothesis of island biogeography
54.28: How does species richness relate to area?

Chapter 55:  Ecosystems
55.10:  An idealized pyramid of net production
55.11:  Pyramids of biomass (standing crop)
55.13:  General model of nutrient cycling  
55.14:  The water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle
55.16a, b, c:  Nutrient cycling in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: An example of long-term ecological research
55.19: Changes in pH of precipitation at Hubbard Brook
55.20: Biological magnification of PCBs

Chapter 56:  Conservation Biology and Restoration Ecology
56.10:  Process culminating in an extinction vortex
56.23:  Exploring Restoration Ecology Worldwide


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Chapter 2:  The Chemical Context of Life

2.12:  Covalent bonding in four molecules
2.13:  Polar covalent bonds in a water molecule
2.14:  Electron transfer and ionic bonding 
2.16:  A Hydrogen bond
2.17:  Molecular shapes due to hybrid orbitals
2.18:  A molecular mimic

Chapter 3:  Water and the Fitness of the Environment
3.2:  Hydrogen bonds between water molecules
3.9:  pH scale

Chapter 4:  Carbon and the molecular diversity of life

4.4: Valences of the major elements in organic molecules
4.7:  Three types of isomers
4.9:  A comparison of functional groups of female (estradiol) and male (testosterone) sex hormones
Figure 4.10:  Exploring some biologically important chemical groups (functional groups)

Chapter 5:  The Structure and Function of Macromolecules
5.2:  The synthesis and breakdown of polymers
5.3:  The structure and classification of some monosaccharides
5.4:  Linear and ring forms of glucose
5.5:  Examples of disaccharide synthesis
5.6:  Storage polysaccharides
5.7:  Starch and cellulose structures
5.11:  The synthesis and structure of a fat, or triacylglycerol
5.12:  Examples of saturated and unsaturated fats and fatty acids
5.13:  The structure of a phospholipid
5.14:  Two structures formed by self-assembly of phospholipids in aqueous environments
5.15:  Cholesterol, a steroid
5.17:  The 20 amino acids of proteins
5.18:  Making a polypeptide chain
5.21:  Exploring levels of protein structure
5.22:  A single amino acid substitution in a protein causes sickle cell disease
5.23:  Denaturation and renaturation of a protein
5.24:  A chaperonin in action

Chapter 8:  An Introduction to Metabolism

8.14:  Energy profile of an exergonic reaction
8.15:  The effect of an enzyme on activation energy
8.17:  The active site and catalytic cycle of an enzyme
8.18:  Environmental factors affecting enzyme activity
8.19:  Inhibition of enzyme activity
8.20:  Allosteric regulation of enzyme activity & cooperativity
8.22:  Feedback inhibition


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Chapter 6:  A Tour of the Cell
6.6:  A prokaryotic cell
6.9:  Overview of an animal cell and plant cell
6.10:  The nucleus and its envelope
6.11:  Ribosomes
6.14:  The formation and functions of lysosomes
6.16:  Review:  Relationships among organelles of the endomembrane system
6.17:  The mitochondrion, site of cellular respiration
6.18:  The chloroplast, site of photosynthesis
Table 6.1:  The Structure and Function of the Cytoskeleton
6.27:  Microfilaments and motility
6.28:  Plant cell walls
6.30:  Extracellular matrix (ECM) of an animal cell
6.31:  Plasmodesmata between plant cells
6.32:  Intercellular junctions in animal tissues

Chapter 7:  Membrane Structure and Function
7.5:  The fluidity of membranes
7.7:  The detailed structure of an animal cell's plasma membrane, in cross section
7.9:  Some functions of membrane proteins
7.10: Synthesis of membrane components and their orientation on resulting membrane
7.11 The diffusion of solutes across a membrane
7.13:  The water balance of living cells
7.14:  The contractile vacuole of a Paramecium: an evolutionary adaptation for osmoregulation
7.15:  Two types of transport proteins that carry out facilitated diffusion
7.16:  The sodium-potassium pump:  a specific case of active transport
7.17:  Review:  passive and active transport compared
7.19:  Cotransport: active transport driven by a concentration gradient
7.20:  Exploring endocytosis in animal cells

Chapter 25: "The First Eukaryotes" section
25.9: A model of the origin of eukaryotes through serial endosymbiosis

Chapter 28: "Endosymbiosis in Eukaryotic Evolution" section
28.2: Diversity of Plastid produced by secondary endosymbiosis

Chapter 36: Water Potential section ONLY
36.8: Water potential and water movement: an artificial model
36.9: Water Relations in plant cells


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Sections 8.1 - 8.3: Energy & ATP

8.6: Free energy changes in exergonic and endergonic reactions
8.8: Structure of ATP
8.9: Hydrolysis of ATP
8.10: How ATP drives chemical work - Energy coupling using ATP hydrolysis
8.12: The ATP cycle

Chapter 9:  Cellular Respiration - Harvesting Chemical Energy
9.3:  Methane combustion as an energy-yielding redox reaction
9.4:  NAD+ as an electron shuttle
9.5:  An introduction to electron transport chains
9.6:  An overview of cellular respiration
9.7:  Substrate-level phosphorylation
9.8:  The energy input and output of glycolysis 
9.9:  A closer look at glycolysis
9.10:  Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, the junction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
9.11:  An overview of the citric acid cycle
9.12:  A closer look at the Krebs cycle
9.14:  ATP synthase, a molecular mill
9.16:  Chemiosmosis couples the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis
9.17:  ATP yield per molecule of glucose at each stage of cellular respiration
9.18:  Fermentation
9.19:  Pyruvate as the key juncture in catabolism
9.20:  The catabolism of various molecules from food
9.21:  The control of cellular respiration


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Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle
12.4:  Chromosome distribution and duplication during cell division
12.5:  The cell cycle
12.6:  Exploring the Mitotic division of an Animal cell
12.7:  The mitotic spindle at metaphase
12.9:  Cytokinesis in animal and plant cells
12.10: Mitosis in a plant cell
12.14: Mechanical analogy for the cell cycle control system

Chapter 27: Bacteria and Archaea
27.2: Most common shapes of prokaryotes
27.11: Transduction 
27.13: Conjugation & recombination in E. coli
Table 27.2: A comparison of the three domains of life

Chapter 28: Protists
Student choice to assist with laboratory work

Section 25.1: "Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible"

Chapter 19: Viruses 
19.3:  Viral Structure
19.4:  Simplified viral reproductive cycle
19.5:  The lytic cycle of phage T4
19.6:  The lysogenic and lytic reproductive cycles of phage lambda, a temperate phage
19.7:  The reproductive cycle of an enveloped RNA virus
19.8:  The reproductive cycle of HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS 


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Chapter 13: Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles
13.4:  Describing chromosomes
13.5:  Human life cycle
13.7:  Overview of meiosis
13.8:  Exploring the meiotic division of an animal cell
13.9:  A comparison of mitosis and meiosis in diploid cells
13.11: Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes in meiosis
13.12: The results of crossing over during meiosis

Chapter 14: Mendel & the Gene Idea
14.4:  Alleles
14.5:  Mendel's law of segregation
14.6:  Phenotype versus genotype
14.7:  Testcross
14.8:  Independent assortment inquiry
14.10: Incomplete dominance
14.11: Multiple alleles for the ABO blood groups
14.12: An example of epistasis
14.15: Pedigree analysis

Chapter 15: Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
15.2: The chromosomal basis for Mendel's laws
15.7: The transmission of sex-linked recessive traits
15.10: Chromosomal basis for recombination of linked genes
15.12: A partial linkage map of a Drosophila chromosome
15.13: Meiotic nondisjunction


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Chapter 31: Fungi
31.2:  Structure of a multicellular fungus
31.3:  Two forms of hyphae
31.5:  Generalized life cycle of fungi
31.13: The life cycle of the zygomycete Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold)
31.17: The life cycle of Neurospora crassa, an ascomycete
31.19: The life cycle of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete
31.24: Anatomy of an ascomycete lichen

Chapter 29:  Plant Diversity I:  How Plants Colonized the Land

29.5:  Exploring derived traits of land plants
29.7:  Highlights of plant evolution
29.8:  Life cycle of a moss
29.13 Life cycle of a fern

Chapter 30: Plant Diversity II - The Evolution of Seed Plants
30.2:  Gametophyte-Sporophyte relationships in different plant groups
30.3:  From ovule to seed in a gymnosperm
30.6:  Life cycle of a pine
30.7:  Structure of an idealized flower
30.10: Life cycle of an angiosperm
30.13: Exploring angiosperm diversity - monocots vs. eudicots


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Chapter 10:  Photosynthesis

10.3:  Zooming in on the location of photosynthesis in a plant
10.5:  An overview of photosynthesis:  cooperation of the light reactions and the Calvin cycle
10.9:  INQUIRY: Which wavelengths of light are most effective in driving photosynthesis?
10.10:  Structure of chlorophyll molecules in chloroplasts of plants
10.12:  How a photosystem harvests light
10.13:  How linear electron flow during the light reactions generates ATP and NADPH
10.15:  Cyclic electron flow
10.16:  Comparison of chemiosmosis in mitochondria and chloroplasts
10.17:  The light reactions and chemiosmosis: the organization of the thylakoid membrane
10.18:  The Calvin cycle
10.19:  C4 leaf anatomy and the C4 pathway
10.20:  C4 and CAM photosynthesis compared
10.21:  A review of photosynthesis

ANGIOSPERMS -  Reproduction, Structures, Transport, Responses, & Hormones

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Chapter 35:  Plant Structure and Growth

35.2:  An overview of a flowering plant
35.8:  The three tissue systems
35.10: Exploring examples of differentiated plant cells
35.11: An overview of primary and secondary growth
35.13: Primary growth of a root
35.14: Organization of primary tissues in young roots-Monocot vs. Dicot
35.17: Organization of primary tissues in young stems-Monocot vs. Dicot
35.18: Leaf anatomy
35.19: Primary and secondary growth of a stem

Chapter 36:  Transport in Plants
36.2: Overview of resource aquisition and transport in a vascular plant
36.11: Cell compartments and routes for short distance transport
36.12: Transport of minerals and water from root hairs to the xylem
36.15: Ascent of xylem sap
36.17: Mechanisms of stomatal opening and closing
36.19: Loading of sucrose into phloem
36.20: Bulk flow by positive pressure (pressure flow) in a sieve tube

Chapter 38:  Plant Reproduction and Biotechnology
38.2:  An overview of angiosperm reproduction
38.3:  Development of male and female gametophytes in angiosperms
38.5:  Growth of pollen tube and double fertilization
38.8:  Seed Structure
38.9:  Two common types of seed germination 

Chapter 39: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals
39.5:  INQUIRY - What part of a grass coleoptile senses light, and how is the signal transmitted?
39.6:  INQUIRY - Does asymmetrical distribution of a growth-promoting factor chemical cause a coleoptile...
39.18: Structure of a phytochrome
39.19: Phytochrome: a molecular switching mechanism
39.21: Photoperiodic control of flowering
39.22: Reversible effects of red and far-red light on photperiodic response


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Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance

16.2: INQUIRY- Can a genetic trait be transferred between different bacteria strains?
16.4: INQUIRY - Is protein or DNA the genetic material?
16.5:  The structure of a DNA strand
16.7:  The double helix
16.9:  A model for DNA replication:  the basic concept
16.10: INQUIRY - Does DNA replication follow the conservative, semiconservative, or dispersive model?
16.12:  Origins of replication in E. coli  and eukaryotes
16.13:  Some of the proteins involved in the initiation of DNA replication
16.14:  Incorporation of a nucleotide into a DNA strand
16.15:  Synthesis of the leading strand during DNA replication
16.16:  Synthesis of the lagging strand 
16.17:  Summary of bacterial DNA replication
Table 16.1:  The main proteins of DNA replication and their functions
16.18:  Nucleotide excision repair of DNA damage
16.19:  Shortening of the ends of linear DNA molecules
16.21:  Exploring chromatin packing in a eukaryotic chromosome

Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein
17.3:  Overview; the roles of transcription and translation in the flow of genetic information
17.4:  The triplet code
17.5:  The dictionary of the genetic code
17.7:  The stages of transcription:  initiation, elongation, and termination
17.8:  Initiation of transcription at a eukaryotic promoter
17.9:  RNA processing:  addition of the 5' cap and the poly-A tail
17.10:  RNA processing:  RNA splicing
17.11:  The roles of snRNPs and spliceosomes in pre-mRNA splicing
17.13:  Translation: the basic concept
17.14:  The structure of transfer RNA (tRNA)
17.16:  The anatomy of a functioning ribosome
17.17:  The initiation of translation
17.18:  The elongation cycle of translation
17.19:  The termination of translation
17.23:  Types of point mutations
17.25:  A summary of transcription and translation in a eukaryotic cell


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Chapter 20:  Biotechnology

20.2    A preview of gene cloning and some uses of cloned genes
20.3    Using a restriction enzyme and DNA ligase to make recombinant DNA
20.4    Cloning a human gene in a bacterial plasmid: Research Method Box
20.6    Making complementary DNA (cDNA) for a eukaryotic gene
20.7    Detecting a specific DNA sequence by hybridization with a nucleic acid probe: Research Method 
20.8    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR): Research Method 
20.9    Gel electrophoresis: Research Method 
20.10  Using restriction fragment patterns to distinguish DNA from different alleles
20.12  Dideoxy Chain Termination method for sequencing DNA (Sanger Method): Research Method
20.15  DNA microarray assay of gene expression levels: Research Method
20.21  Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) as genetic markers for disease-causing alleles

Chapter 18:  Regualtion of Gene Expression
18.2      Regulation of a metabolic pathway
18.3ab  The trp operon in E. coli:  regulated synthesis of repressible enzymes
18.4ab  The lac operon in E. coli:  regulated synthesis of inducible enzymes
18.5      Positive control of the lac operon by CAP
18.6      Stages in eukaryotic gene expression that can be regulated in eukaryotic cells
18.7      Histone acetylation
18.11    Alternative RNA splicing of the troponin T gene
18.13    Regulation of gene expression by miRNAs


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Chapter 46:  Animal Reproduction
46.10  Female Reproductive Anatomy
46.11  Male Reproductive Anatomy
46.12  SpermatogenesisHuman Sperm Structure, & Oogenesis  
46.13  Hormone Control of the testes
46.14  Female Reproductive Cycle (parts a - e)
46.15  Formation of the zygote and early post-fertilization events
46.16  Placental Circulation
46.18  A model for the induction of labor

Chapter 47:  Animal Development
47.3    Acrosomal and cortical reactions during sea urchin fertilization
47.4    Calcium & fertilization envelope: Inquiry
47.5    Fertilization in mammals
47.6    Cleavage of echinoderm embryo
47.7    Body Axes & establishment in an amphibian
47.8    Cleavage in frog embryo
Gastrulation in a sea urchin embryo
47.10  Gastrulation in a frog embryo
47.11  Gastrulation in a chicken embryo
47.12  Early Organogenesis
in a frog embryo
47.13  Early Organogenesis in a chicken embryo
47.14  Adult derivatives of three embryonic germ layers in vertebrates
47.15  Extraembryonic Membranes in birds and other reptiles
47.16  Four stages in early embryonic development of a human
47.21  Fate mapping for two chordates
47.23  Grey Crescent experiment: Inquiry
47.24  Translocation of dorsal lip of blastopore experiment: Inquiry


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Chapter 32: Introduction to Animal Evolution

32.2   Early Embryonic Development in animals
32.7   Body Symmetry
32.6   Body cavities of triploblastic animals 
32.9   Protostome/Deuterostome Development Comparison
32.10 Animal phylogeny based on body plan
32.11 Animal phylogeny based on molecular data
Chapter 33: Invertebrates

33.3    Exploring invertebrate diversity
33.4    Anatomy of a Sponge
33.5    Polyp and Medusa forms of Cnidarians
33.6    Cnidocyte
33.10  Anatomy of a Planarian, a turbellarian
33.11  Life history of a blood fluke (Schistosome mansoni)
33.15  Basic body plan of mollusc
33.20  Anatomy of a clam
33.22  Anatomy of Earthworm
33.29  External Anatomy of an Arthropod
33.35  Anatomy of Grasshopper
33.39  Anatomy of Sea Star

Chapter 34: Vertebrates
34.2    Phylogeny of living chordates
34.3    Chordate characteristics
34.20  Origin of tetrapods
34.24  Phylogeny of amniotes
34.25  Amniotic egg
34.35  Mammalian Diversity


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Sections 40.1 - 40.2:  Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
40.4    Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
40.1    TABLE: Organ Systems: main components and functions in mammals
40.5    Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue, Muscle, & Nervous Tissue
40.6    Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systems
40.8    A nonliving example of negative feedback

Chapter 45:  Hormones and the Endocrine System
45.2    Intercellular communication by secreted molecules
45.3    Hormones differ in form and solubility
45.5    Receptor location varies with hormone type
45.6    Cell-surface hormone receptors trigger signal transduction
45.7    Steroid hormone receptors directly regulate gene expression
45.10  Major human endocrine glands
45.11  A simple endocrine pathway
45.12  Glucose Homeostasis
45.14  Endocrine glands in the human brain
45.15  Production and release of posterior pituitary hormones
45.16  A simple neurohormone pathway
45.1    TABLE: major human endocrine glands and some of their hormones
45.17  Production and release of anterior pituitary hormones
45.18  A hormone cascade pathway: TRH, TSH, T3, T4
45.20  The roles of PTH in regulating blood calcium levels in mammals
45.21  Stress and the adrenal gland


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Ch 41:  Animal Nutrition
41.6    FYI: Best biology picture EVER - anaconda eating a deer!!
41.10  The Human Digestive System
41.12  The stomach and its secretions
41.13  Enzymatic hydrolysis in the human digestive system
41.14  Hormonal control of digestion
41.15  The structure of the small intestine
41.16  Absorption of fats
41.20  Ruminant Digestion
41.21  Homeostatic regulation of cellular fuel
41.23  A few of the appetite-regulating hormones

Sections 40.3 - 40.4:  Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
40.10  Heat exchange between an organism and its environment
40.16  The thermostatic function of the hypothalamus in human thermoregulation
40.17  Bioenergetics of an animal: an overview

Ch 44:  Osmoregulation and Excretion
44.2    Solute concentration and osmosis
44.4    Osmoregulation in marine and freshwater fish: a comparison (a and b)
44.9    Nitrogenous Wastes
44.10  Key functions of excretory systems: an overview
44.14  The Mammalian Excretory System (a, b, c, & d)
44.15  The nephron and collecting duct
44.16  How the human kidney concentrates urine
44.19  Regulation of fluid retention by antidiuretic hormone ADH (a and b)
44.21  Regulation of blood volume and blood pressure by RAAS


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Chapter 42:  Circulation and Gas Exchange
42.3      Open and closed circulatory systems
42.4      Single circulation in fishes 
42.5      Exploring double circulation in vertebrates: amphibian, reptiles, mammals & birds
42.6      The mammalian cardiovascular system: an overview
42.7      The mammalian heart: a closer look 
42.8      Cardiac Cycle
42.9      Control of Heart Rhythm
42.10    The Structure of Blood Vessels
42.11    Interrelationship of cross-sectional area of blood vessels, blood flow velocity, and blood pressure
42.13    Measurement of Blood Pressure
42.14    Blood flow in veins
42.15    Blood Flow in Capillary Beds
42.16    Fluid Exchange between Capillaries and interstitial fluid
42.17    Components of Mammalian Blood
42.18    Blood Clotting
42.22    Structure & function of fish gills
42.24    Mammalian Respiratory System 
42.25    Negative Pressure Breathing
42.27    Automatic Control of Breathing
42.28    Loading and unloading of Respiratory Gases
42.29    Dissociation Curve for Hemoglobin at 37C
42.30    Carbon dioxide transport in blood


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Chapter 43:  The Body's Defenses

43.2      Overview of animal immunity
43.3      Phagocytosis (review)
43.7      Human lymphatic system
43.8      Major events in local inflammatory response
43.9      Antigen receptors on lymphocytes (a and b)
43.10    Epitopes
43.11    Antigen presentation by an MHC molecule
43.12    Interaction of T cells with antigen-presenting cells (a and b)
43.14    Clonal Selection of B cells
43.15    Specificity of immunological memory
43.16    BIG PICTURE:  An overview of acquired immune response
43.17    The Central role of helper T cells 
43.18    Killing action of cytotoxic T cells
43.19    B cell activation in humoral immune response
43.20    Five antibody (immunoglobulin - Ig) classes
43.21    Antibody-mediated mechanisms of antigen disposal
43.23    Mast Cells (IgE) and the Allergic response
43.26    Progress of an untreated HIV Infection


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Chapter 48:  Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling
48.3    Summary of information processing 
48.4    Neuron structure and organization
48.5    Structural diversity of neurons
48.6    The basis of membrane potential
48.9    Graded potentials
48.10  Role of voltage gated ion channels in generation of an action potential
48.11  Conduction of an Action Potential
48.12  Schwann cells and the myelin sheath
48.13  Saltatory Conduction
48.15  Chemical Synapse
48.16  Summation
48.1    TABLE: major neurotransmitters

Chapter 49: Nervous Systems
49.3    Knee-jerk reflex
49.4    Vertebrate Nervous Systems
49.5    Ventricles: white and grey matter
49.6    Glia in the vertebrate nervous system
49.7    Functional hierarchy of vertebrate PNS
49.8    Parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of autonomic NS
49.15  Human cerebral cortex (lobes)

Chapter 50:  Sensory and Motor Mechanisms
Structure of Skeletal Muscle 
50.26  Sliding Filament model
50.27  Myosin-Actin interactions underlying muscle fiber contraction
50.28  Role of regulatory proteins and calcium in muscle fiber contraction
50.29  Regulation of skeletal muscle contraction


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Chapter 22:  Descent with Modification -A Darwinian View of Life
22.07    Descent with Modification
22.12    Insect Resistance
22.14    Homologous Structures
22.15    Convergent Evolution

Chapter 23:  Evolution of Populations
23.03a  Hardy Weinberg-Parents
23.03b  Hardy Weinberg-F1
23.04  Genetic Drift
23.05  Bottleneck Effect
23.08   Plant Cline Variation
23.12   Modes of Selection

Chapter 24:  The Origin of Species
24.05 Reproductive Isolation Mechanisms: Pre and Post-zygotic
24.06  Modes of Speciation
24.08  Geographic Isolation
24.11 Adaptive Radiation

Chapter 25:  Phylogeny and Systematics
25.03  Plate Tectonics
25.04  Continental Drift
25.08  Systematics
25.09  Cladistics
25.11  Cladogram

Chapter 26:  Early Earth and Origin of Life 
26.01  History of Life
26.02  Evolutionary Clock Analogy
26.09  Pasteur Microorganism Experiment
26.10  Miller and Urey Experiment
26.16  Classification Chart